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Global Arbitration Review中国建设工程仲裁问答专章•第三期

信息来源:建领城达所  时间:2021-08-25  作者:建领城达所

编者按上海建领城达律师事务所主任周吉高律师受Global Arbitration Review(《环球仲裁评论》,简称GAR)邀请,为该杂志撰写中国建设工程仲裁问答专章。内容涵盖了建设工程合同履行、法律救济、仲裁程序等57个与中国建设工程仲裁实践密切相关的重要法律问题。建领城达根据中国大陆地区的现行法律规定、司法解释以及司法实践主流观点,对全部问题逐一作出了细致、专业、准确的回答,以期为境外的企业、律师以及仲裁员快速熟悉、了解中国建设工程仲裁法律实务提供指引和参考。“建领城达”公众号将对中国建设工程仲裁专章问答的全部内容进行分期推送,本文为第三期,以飨读者!

Omissions and termination for convenience 以方便起见为由省去或终止工作


Q17: May the employer exercise an express power to omit work; or terminate the contract at will or for convenience, so as to give work to another contractor or to carry out the work itself?

业主是否可以有明确规定的权利省去工作;任意地或为了方便而终止合同,以便将工作交给另一个承包商或自己完成工作?


A17: The employer may exercise an express power to omit work but should follow the duty of good faith. In principle, the employer cannot omit most of work that will lead that the purpose of the contract cannot be realised.

The employer may exercise an express power to terminate the contract at will or for convenience.


业主可以行使明确约定了的权利省去工作,但应当遵循诚信义务,原则上不能因业主省去工作导致合同目的不能实现。


业主可以行使明确规定的权利任意地或为了方便而终止合同。


Termination 合同终止


Q18:What termination rights exist? Can a construction contract be terminated in part? What are the practical and financial consequences?


存在哪些终止权?建设工程合同可以部分终止吗?终止合同的实际和财务上的后果是什么?

 

A18:Under Chinese laws, parties shall have legal rights to rescind a contract with the effect of termination. As per article 563 of the Civil Code, the legal circumstances for rescission of contract include:


• the purpose of the contract cannot be realised due to force majeure;

• any party expressly or impliedly indicates that it will not perform its main obligations under the contract;

• the contractor fails to complete the work within either the time limit agreed in the contract or the extra time limit reasonably requested by the employer;

• the work is unqualified due to the contractor’s reasons and the contractor refuses to make remedies;

• the contractor assigns or subcontracts the work illegally;

• the employer cannot pay the price under the contract and still refuse to pay within the reasonable time limit requested by the contractor.


The construction contract may be partially terminated.


On the practical side, as per article 566 of the Civil Code, the part of the work that is still not yet commenced would be terminated forever.


On the financial side, as per article 566 of the Civil Code and based on business practice:


• if the contract is terminated due to the employer’s reasons, the employer shall pay the corresponding price and compensate the contractor for the losses, such as the purchase price, evacuation costs and demobilisation costs already paid by the contractor.

• If the contract is terminated due to the contractor’s reasons, the employer shall pay the price of the completed work, the materials, engineering equipment, construction equipment and temporary works but the contractor shall compensate the employer for losses caused.


中国法下终止是一种事实而非权利,当事人行使解除权将产生合同终止的效果。根据《民法典》第563条,当事人享有法定解除权的主要情形(即合同解除的法定情形)如下:


(1)因不可抗力致使不能实现合同目的;

(2)发包人或承包人明确表示或者以行为表明不履行合同主要义务的;

(3)承包人在合同约定的期限内没有完工,且在发包人催告的合理期限内仍未完工的;

(4)因承包人原因导致已经完成的建设工程质量不合格,并拒绝修复的;

(5)承包人将承包的建设工程非法转包、违法分包的;

(6)因发包人原因未能依约支付合同价款,且在承包人催告的合理期限内仍未支付的。


建设工程合同可以部分终止。


根据《民法典》第566条,终止合同的实际后果为:尚未施工的部分终止施工。


根据《民法典》第566条及行业惯例,终止合同的财务后果:因发包人原因解除合同的,发包人应支付合同解除前所完成工作对应的价款,赔偿承包人已支付的采购价款、撤离及遣散费用等损失。因承包人原因解除合同的,确定承包人实际完成工作对应的合同价款以及承包人已提供的材料、工程设备、施工设备和临时工程等的价值并由发包人予以支付,但承包人应赔偿给发包人造成的损失。


Q19 If the construction contract provides for the circumstances in which each party may terminate the contract but does not expressly or impliedly state that those rights are exhaustive, are other rights to terminate available? If so, what are they and what are the practical and financial consequences?

如果建设工程规定了各方可以终止合同的情况,但没有明示或暗示这些权利是详尽无遗的,还有其他终止权利吗?

如果是这样,它们是什么,实际和财务上的后果是什么?


A19: Parties are entitled to rescind a contract with the effect of termination under circumstances stipulated under relevant laws even though parties do not agree such circumstances in the contract.


The legal circumstances of recession of contract and the consequences have been mentioned in question 18.


合同虽未约定,但符合合同解除的法定情形的,当事人也享有解除权,使合同终止。


合同解除的法定情形及后果如上一问所述。


Q20:What limits apply to exercising termination rights?
行使终止权有哪些限制?
A20: When parties exercise rights to rescind a contract with the effect of termination, there may be following limits:
• If there is a prescription for exercising the right of termination stipulated by laws or agreed by parties, parties shall not  exercise such rights after prescription expires; where the law does not provide for or the parties have not agreed upon a prescription period for the exercise of the right to rescind a contract, such right shall be extinguished if it is not exercised by the party with the right within one year after the party knew or ought to have known of the cause for rescission or within a reasonable period after being urged by the other party (see article 564 of the Civil Code.)
• If one party would like to terminate a contract, he or she shall notify the other party (see article 565 of the Civil Code).
• Where laws and administrative regulations stipulate that the termination of a contract shall go through administrative formalities of approval and registration, parties shall terminate a contract after those procedures (see article 502 of the Civil Code).
根据《民法典》第564条,法律规定或者当事人约定解除权行使期限,期限届满当事人不行使的,该权利消灭;法律没有规定或者当事人没有约定解除权行使期限,自解除权人知道或者应当知道解除事由之日起一年内不行使,或者经对方催告后在合理期限内不行使的,该权利消灭。

根据《民法典》第565条,主张解除合同的,应当通知对方。


根据《民法典》第502条,法律、行政法规规定解除合同应当办理批准等手续的,依照其规定。


Completion 完工


Q21:Does the law of your jurisdiction deem the works to be completed (irrespective of what the contract says) if, say, the employer takes beneficial possession of the works and starts using them?


如果,比如说,业主已经实际上取得工程并开始使用它们,中国的法律是否会因此认为工程已经完工(不管合同怎么说)?


A21: As per article 799 of the Civil Code, after the completion of the work the employer shall conduct the ‘acceptance’ as soon as possible. If the ‘acceptance’ is qualified, the employer shall pay the price and accept the work based on the contract. If there is no ‘acceptance’ or the ‘acceptance’ is not qualified, the work shall not be delivered for use. As per article 9 of the Judicial Interpretation of Construction Contract (I), where the employer takes beneficial possession of the work without authorisation, the date of transfer of possession of the works shall be deemed the completion date, and the works shall be deemed as completed at this time unless otherwise specifically agreed by parties.


根据《民法典》第799条,建设工程竣工后,发包人应及时进行验收,验收合格的,发包人应当依约支付价款并接收该建设工程。未经验收或者验收不合格的,不得交付使用。根据《最高人民法院关于审理建设工程施工合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释(一)》第9条,发包人擅自使用的,以转移占有建设工程之日为竣工日期,此时认为工程已经竣工。但是,合同双方另有特别约定的除外。


Q22: Does approval or acceptance of work by or on behalf of the employer bar a subsequent complaint? What constitutes acceptance? Does taking over the work by the employer constitute acceptance? Does this bar subsequent complaint?
业主或其代表对工程的“批准”或“验收”是否会阻碍之后的起诉?什么是“验收”?业主接管工程是否构成“验收”,这会阻碍之后的起诉吗?
A22:  After the “approval” or  “acceptance” of the work, the employer is not entitled to subsequently complain that the work is unqualified, but the employer still has the right to require the contractor to (i) perform its obligations pertaining to maintenance or (ii) be liable for quality defects (see articles 4 and 8 of Measures for Quality Warranty of Housing Construction Projects).
In practice, “acceptance” refers to the act and process of the employer, the surveyor, the designer, the constructor and the supervisor to approve the quality of the work after the inspection of the work is passed.
As per article 9 of the Judicial Interpretation of Construction Contract (I), it does not constitute an acceptance if the employer just takes over the work and this would not bar subsequent complaints; if the employer takes over the work and uses it without authorisation, it will constitute an acceptance of the parts of the work (except the parts of foundation and the main structure). Subsequently, if the employer bring a complaint on the grounds that the used parts (except the foundation engineering and the main structure) are unqualified, it will not be supported by the court or the arbitration institution but the employer is still entitled to bring a complaint on the grounds that the unused parts, foundation and the main structure are unqualified.
对工程“批准”或“验收”后,业主丧失主张工程质量不合格的权利,但根据《房屋建筑工程质量保修办法》第4条、第8条,业主有权要求承包人履行保修义务或承担质量瑕疵担保责任。
验收通常指业主、勘察单位、设计单位、施工单位和监理单位对建设工程的质量进行的检验合格之后予以接收的行为及过程。
根据《最高人民法院关于审理建设工程施工合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释(一)》第9条,业主仅接管工程并不构成验收,也不阻碍之后的起诉; 业主接管工程且擅自使用的,构成对地基基础工程和主体结构之外部分的验收,此后业主以使用部分(地基基础工程和主体结构除外)质量不合格为由起诉的,不予支持,但不影响业主以未使用部分、地基基础工程和主体结构质量不合格为由的起诉。