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The Legal 500 建设工程国别指南(中国篇)·第二期

信息来源:建领城达所  时间:2022-05-20  作者:建领城达所

编者按 上海建领城达律师事务所主任周吉高律师接受国际知名法律评级机构The Legal 500的邀请,撰写建设工程国别指南(中国篇)。近日,The Legal 500已正式在其官网发布该指南。“建领城达”公众号将对该指南的全部内容进行分期推送,本文为第二期,以飨读者!

Procurement

采购


Q6:Who are the typical parties involved in a construction and engineering project? 


建设工程项目中典型的市场参与主体有哪些?


A6: 

(1) Developer (Owner)

(1)建设单位(业主方)


(2) Survey units

(2)勘察单位


(3) Design units

(3)设计单位


(4)Builders (including general contractors and specialised subcontractors)

(4)施工单位(包括总承包和专业分包单位)


(5) Supervisory units

(5)监理单位


In addition to the above-mentioned entities, in order to ensure the smooth operation of construction projects, there may be project management companies, price review agencies and other market entities.


除了上述主体之外,为了保障建设工程项目的顺利运行,还可能存在项目管理公司、审价机构等市场主体参与。


Q7: What are the most popular methods of procurement?


最常用的采购方式有哪些?


A7: 

(1) Traditional model: The owner commissions architects and consulting engineers to carry out the preliminary work, and then carries out the design after the project has been evaluated and established, and at the same time prepares the construction tender documents during the design stage and then carries out the tender process to select the contractor.


(1)传统模式:由业主委托建筑师和咨询工程师进行前期的各项工作,待项目评估立项后在进行设计,同时在设计阶段进行施工招标文件的准备,随后进行招标选择承包商。


(2) CM model: a variation of the traditional model, in which a CM unit with construction experience is engaged from the start of the project to provide construction advice to the designers and subsequently manage the construction process to enhance the 'constructability' of the project.


(2)CM模式:是传统模式的变型,自工程开始阶段即聘请具有施工经验的CM单位参与到建设工程实施过程中来,以便为设计人员提供施工方面的建议并随后负责管理施工过程,增强项目的“可施工性”。


(3) Design-Build Model (BD Model): A specialist organisation is selected by the owner as the contractor to be responsible for the whole process of design, construction and installation of the project.


(3)设计-建造模式(BD模式):由业主选定一家专业机构作为承包商,由其负责工程项目的设计、施工、安装全过程的总承包。


(4) Project Management Contracting Model (PMC Model): A project management contractor acts as the owner's agent for the whole process and all-round project management of the project.


(4)项目管理承包模式(PMC模式):有项目管理承包商代理业主对工程项目进行全过程、全方位的项目管理。


(5)EPC mode: The owner organises the design, procurement and construction of the project as a whole under the management of one management body.


(5)EPC总承包模式:业主将工程项目的设计、采购与施工作为一个整体,在一个管理主体的管理下组织实施。


Q8: What are the most popular standard forms of contract? Do parties commonly amend these standard forms?


最常用的标准合同文本有哪些?缔约方通常会修改这些标准合同文本吗?


A8:On November 25, 2020, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development and the State Administration for Market Regulation announced the General Contracting Contract for Construction Projects (Model Text).


(1)2020年11月25日,住房和城乡建设部、国家市场监督管理总局公布了《建设项目工程总承包合同(示范文本)》


On September 22, 2017, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development and the State Administration for Market Regulation announced the Construction Contract for Construction Projects (Model Text).


(2)2017年9月22日,住房城乡建设部、工商总局公布了《建设工程施工合同(示范文本)》。


In China, the owner is in an advantageous position in the legal relationship of construction projects, so the owner will make its own adjustments to the provisions of the standard contract on the distribution of benefits and liability for breach of contract.


在我国,业主方在建设工程法律关系中处于优势地位,因此业主方会对标准合同中有关利益分配、违约责任等条款进行有利于其自身的调整。


Q9:Are there any restrictions or legislative regimes affecting procurement?


是否存在影响采购的任何限制或法律规制?


A9:According to the provisions of the Bidding and Tendering Law and the State Planning Commission's Regulations on Engineering Projects that Must Be Tendered: projects related to social public interest and public safety, such as large-scale infrastructure and public utilities.


根据《招标投标法》和国家计委《必须招标的工程项目规定》的规定:大型基础设施、公用事业等关系社会公共利益、公众安全的项目;


Projects wholly or partially invested with state-owned funds or financed by the state; projects using loans or aid funds from international organizations or foreign governments.


全部或者部分使用国有资金投资或者国家融资的项目;使用国际组织或者外国政府贷款、援助资金的项目。


The above three types of projects include the survey, design, construction, supervision of the project and the procurement of important equipment and materials related to the construction of the project, which must be tendered if they meet one of the following criteria.


上述三类项目包括项目的勘察、设计、施工、监理以及与工程建设有关的重要设备、材料等的采购,如达到下列标准之一的,必须进行招标:


a) the estimated value of a single contract for construction is above RMB 4 million

1、施工单项合同估算价在400万元人民币以上的;


b) the procurement of important equipment, materials and other goods, where the estimated value of a single contract is more than RMB 2 million

2、重要设备、材料等货物的采购,单项合同估算价在200万元人民币以上的;


c) the procurement of services such as survey, design and supervision, where the estimated value of a single contract is more than RMB 1 million.


3、勘察、设计、监理等服务的采购,单项合同估算价在100万元人民币以上的。


Q10: Do parties typically engage consultants? What forms are used?


各方主体是否会聘请顾问?采用何种形式?


A10: For projects that require supervision and management by law, the builder is required to employ a works supervisor to manage the quality and safety of the project, in addition to a cost consultant to provide services for the cost of the project. For owners who lack experience in construction work, a project manager may be engaged to provide management and consultancy services.


对于依法需要监督管理的项目,施工方须聘请工程主管对工程的质量和安全进行管理,此外还会聘请成本顾问为工程造价提供服务。对于缺乏建设工程施工经验的业主,可能会聘请项目经理为提供管理和咨询服务。


Q11:Is subcontracting permitted?


是否允许分包?


A11:Chinese law does not prohibit subcontracting, but there are four types of subcontracting acts that are prohibited by law according to the Regulations on Quality Management of Construction Works.


中国法并不禁止分包,但是根据《建设工程质量管理条例》有四类分包行为被法律所禁止:


(a) Where a general contractor subcontracts construction works to units that do not possess the corresponding qualifications.

(一)总承包单位将建设工程分包给不具备相应资质条件的单位的;


(b) Where the general contract for construction works has not been agreed in the contract and where the contractor has handed over part of its contracted construction works to other units for completion without the approval of the construction unit.

(二)建设工程总承包合同中未有约定,又未经建设单位认可,承包单位将其承包的部分建设工程交由其他单位完成的;


(c) The main contractor of the construction works subcontracts the construction of the main structure of the construction works to other units

(三)施工总承包单位将建设工程主体结构的施工分包给其他单位的;


(d) the subcontracting unit subcontracts the construction works contracted by it.

(四)分包单位将其承包的建设工程再分包的。


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